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About poultry farming

Site layout and poultry house design

The site layout and poultry house design should take into account biosafety of vehicle entry and farm employee entry. There should be rooms for employees, changing rooms and shower rooms, as applicable.

In addition, the poultry house design should take into account:

Climate: extreme temperatures and air humidity can dictate what type of a poultry house is more appropriate (i.e. open or closed) and what control system is required to maintain breeding conditions. Local laws and design standards: these factors can restrict the design (e.g. height, colour, materials, etc.) and should be taken into account as early at the design stage as possible.

Biosafety: size, placement and design of poultry houses should ensure minimum risk of infection communication inside the stock and between the stocks. The principle of keeping the stock of the same age at the site should be applied.

Livestock count: the weekly demand for hatching eggs generally determines the size of the parent stock. Layer density, feeding and drinking space and capacity of the ventilation/cooling system depend on the number and size of poultry houses.

Technology selection: the stock management technology brings good results in the controlled maintenance system and application of full blackout of poultry houses for the entire production period or at least during youngster breeding. The type of a poultry house used for egg laying depends on the climate and geographic latitude.

Local topography and wind rose: these natural characteristics have an essential impact in the using of semi-closed poultry houses. They can be used to reduce direct sunlight penetration or to create appropriate ventilation/cooling. Other farms nearby should be taken into account as they pose a risk of occurrence of airborne diseases.

Electricity and costs: creating controlled conditions requires a reliable power supply for ventilation, heating, lighting and breeding.

Floor: concrete floors with smooth hard surface should be used to facilitate cleaning and ensure disinfection efficacy. There should be a concrete or gravel area 1 – 3 m wide around the poultry house to prevent rodent attacks

Drainage: effective storm drainage and waste water disposal after poultry house cleaning promotes improved biosafety.

Water: a source of fresh potable water is required (see Quality of Water).

Access: a proper access to deliver poultry and feed and for egg trucks to leave should be provided.